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Saving Energy: Discrete edge detector for driving latching relays

Edge detector for latching relays
Edge detector for latching relays

2016-10-08 Update: Modified schematics to include additional MOSFET protection components (D3 - D6). Thanks to Eric (OceanSeaSpray) from nordkyndesign.com for pointing this out.

 

This post describes an electronic circuit which can be used to drive latching (bi-stable) relays from a controlling device which expects to drive a "normal" relay coil.

The circuit presented here is designed to connect directly to a House Power BMS, replacing either HVC or LVC relay with a latching relay, but the circuit should also easily be usable in other application in which latching relays need to be driven from a controller providing constant output levels.

 

 

The House Power BMS used in Entropy's design only provides outputs for "traditional" relays. The main contactor output as well as High Voltage Cutoff and Low Voltage Cutoff outputs are all level driven. The BMS pulls the output to ground in order to activate the attached relay.

For the main contactor, the BMS output "E" is typically always active (pulled to ground) in normal operation mode, however outputs "B" and "C" (LVC and HVC) are pulled to ground in case such an event is detected.

 

Entropy's battery management design requires three relays to be active in normal operating conditions (main contactor, load bus contactor and charge bus relay), all of the are contributing to the idle consumption of roughly 1.5 - 2.0 A.

It is possible to reduce the residual current flowing through the relay coils by about 50 % because the holding voltage of a relay is only about 50 % of the nominal voltage. There are "coil optimizers" which do exactly this, for example the Tyco EV200, resulting in a holding current of only about 170 mA for a 500 A contactor. Not bad.

However, our charge bus relay does not have a coil optimizer. It draws about 340 mA, 24/7, a whopping 8 Ah per day!

 

Edge Detector driver for latching relays

The schematics below show two variants of an Edge Detector circuit for driving latching relays from a constant level controlling device.

 

The variant on the left hand side is designed is the "low side switching" version, it is electrically preferred and N Channel MOSFETs are more common than P Channels which are need for the "high side switching" version on the right hand side.

There are some latching relays, though, which require switching the high side, for example some BlueSea relays.

 

Note: I have only tested and verified the low side switching version!

 

Installation:

  • connect +12V and GND. +12 V should ideally always be connected (even if HP BMS is switched off - this way this circuit can manage the relay coils)
  • connect Out1 to "On" coil of latching relay
  • connect Out2 to "Off" coil of latching relay
  • the common side of the relay coils shall be connected to +12 V (Low side switching version: output connects to GND) or GND (High side switching version: output connects to +12 V)
  • connect HP BMS outputs:
  •  connect E (main contactor) output to In2
  •  connect B or C (LVC, HVC) output to In1
  •  if no main contactor function is required (pure emulation of the LVC/HVC relay) connect In2 to ground (or completely remove R1, R2 and Q1 from the circuit if In2 is not needed)
  •  it is allowed to join B and C outputs of the BMS and connect to In1 to achieve "open relay on LVC or HVC"

Idle current draw is less than 6 mA. This can be reduced by optimizing the circuit: replace R3 and R4 with a higher value, e. g. 4.7 kOhm. The circuit will continue to work, but it will require more time to "get ready" before the next edge can be detected.

 

 

Basic operation

Switch +12 V on with In1 and In2 open: relay turns off if it was on

In2 open, In 1 any state: relay off

In1 connected to ground, In 1 open: relay on

 

In1 connected to ground, In 1 connected to ground: relay off

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Edge Detector.pdf
Edge Detector Schematics
Edge Detector.pdf
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Timing/Logic Diagram

This timing diagram might help to understand operation of the design.

 

With no +12 V power supply connected the outputs Out1 and Out2 are - of course - disconnected/floating (grey).

 

Marker "a":

+12 V is applied. In2 (BMS E) is pulled to ground (i. e. the BMS activates the main contactor). In1 is open (i. e. the BMS does not signal a LVC/HVC)

Out2 is pulled to ground for about 1/10th of a second, switching ON the latching relay.

 

Marker "b":

An LVC/HVC event happens: In1 is pulled to ground.

Out1 is pulled to ground for about 1/10th of a second, switching OFF the latching relay.

 

Marker "c":

LVC/HVC condition disappears: In1 returns to open.

Out2 is pulled to ground for about 1/10th of a second, switching ON the latching relay.

 

Marker "d":

The main contactor is dropped by the BMS: In2 is open. The state of In1 is irrelevant.

Out1 is pulled to ground for about 1/10th of a second, switching OFF the latching relay.

 

Marker "e": 

The main contactor is activated again: In2 is pulled to ground by the BMS. However, In1 is still pulled to ground (LVC/HVC still persists).

Nothing happens.

 

Marker "f", "g", "h":

Normal operation with main contactor activated, but LVC/HVC condition appears/disappears.

Out1/Out2 is triggered accordingly (see above "b", "c")

 

See it in action

Note: this early prototype does not feature the In2 input, it only demonstrates operation based on In1.

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